Quadruple ion Trap MS

Another alternate technique to the Q-MS is the QIT-MS i.e Quadruple Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer. This method was made parallel along with Q-MS by the researcher Wolfgang Paul, a Nobel Prize winner for his work in the field of Physics in the year 1989. Finnigan Corporation in the 1980s, made public, its first QIT instrument which was used as mass spectrometer. This instrument and its technology are widely used in research fields and academics but however, play a small role in forensic sciences and drug testing. In history, the ion trap was widely disapproved for its spectral unsteadiness. Presently, issues like space charges, self protonation, mass mis-assignments and poor reproduction were noted. However, in 1990s, further developments in the technology of QIT led to the production of MS instruments that very satisfactory and quick enough to meet the added needs of forensic science.

The Q-MS uses continuous time frame to detect the ions present in the sample where as the QIT-MS tends to store, ionize and then detect the ions in given time cycles which are measured in milliseconds. QIT-MS is based as both Paul Trap i.e. linear and hyperbolic i.e. 3D forms. The linear trap has 4 parallel quadruple rods which are same as Q-MS, except that they have an extra electrical potential which is added to its end electrode so that the ions are confined axially. The linear ion trap is either utilized as a regular filter or as an ion trapper.

On the other hand, the 3D QIT-MS has an ion source, 2 end electrodes, a ring electrode and detector. Figure 3.2 depicts an illustration of this type.

As shown in the figure, the electrodes are basically distanced by spacer which is formed with ceramic to create a hyperbolic chamber. Electron beam is passed into the chamber from where its vapors are ionized. Automatic sensors detect the quantity of ions that are formed and stop the ionization process when maximum ions are reached. This reduces the charged space and its effects which occur when a lot of ions are created inside the chamber. Once the ionization is complete, the molecules are trapped within the sinusoidal orbit in the chamber due to non-oscillating and oscillating fields. The m/z of ions is gathered over a lot of time and then ejected due to RF voltage in the end electrodes. Just like Q-MS, a fixed RF voltage traps the single m/z ion where as a sweeping voltage would scan through a wider range of m/z ions. The data for both full-scan and SIM analysis can be collected and it can also be done via scanning the same analysis alternatively.

Another excellent advantage of QIT-MS is that it can trap and gather specific m/z ions. This greatly increases its sensitivity. The spectral data of full scan is then gathered at levels which were previously accomplished by SIM analysis only. It is extremely important to note this while drug testing as it will give a wider detection window, more so while analyzing low dosage yet stronger hallucinogens like LSD.

The second essential advantage of QIT-MS is that it can perform multiple stage MS or MSn. A particular ion m/z is isolated by its relevant waveform and it is then accumulated and fragmented inside the chamber. This isolates the fragments which are now known as product ions. On being isolated, gathered and fragmented, these product ions are generated till the whole sample is utilized. To lower background noise and enhance the sensitivity, it is essential that the product ions of specific ions are monitored.

The third benefit of the QIT-Ms is that it can change the ionization methods from EI to CI with simply flicking a switch. Many Q-MS methods need wide-ranging and time consuming shutdown and emission to change their ionization methods. In QIT-MS, only a reaction gas is released in the ion trap where it stabilizes and the CI method can proceed onwards. On a QIT-MS, the CI process is quicker and convenient enough t find the molecular weight of the unknown compound which shows a lot of EI fragmentation without any molecular ions.

Another alternate technique to the Q-MS is the QIT-MS i.e Quadruple Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer. This method was made parallel along with Q-MS by the researcher Wolfgang Paul, a Nobel Prize winner for his work in the field of Physics in the year 1989. Finnigan Corporation in the 1980s, made public, its first QIT instrument which was used as mass spectrometer. This instrument and its technology are widely used in research fields and academics but however, play a small role in forensic sciences and drug testing. In history, the ion trap was widely disapproved for its spectral unsteadiness. Presently, issues like space charges, self protonation, mass mis-assignments and poor reproduction were noted. However, in 1990s, further developments in the technology of QIT led to the production of MS instruments that very satisfactory and quick enough to meet the added needs of forensic science.

The Q-MS uses continuous time frame to detect the ions present in the sample where as the QIT-MS tends to store, ionize and then detect the ions in given time cycles which are measured in milliseconds. QIT-MS is based as both Paul Trap i.e. linear and hyperbolic i.e. 3D forms. The linear trap has 4 parallel quadruple rods which are same as Q-MS, except that they have an extra electrical potential which is added to its end electrode so that the ions are confined axially. The linear ion trap is either utilized as a regular filter or as an ion trapper.

On the other hand, the 3D QIT-MS has an ion source, 2 end electrodes, a ring electrode and detector. Figure 3.2 depicts an illustration of this type.

As shown in the figure, the electrodes are basically distanced by spacer which is formed with ceramic to create a hyperbolic chamber. Electron beam is passed into the chamber from where its vapors are ionized. Automatic sensors detect the quantity of ions that are formed and stop the ionization process when maximum ions are reached. This reduces the charged space and its effects which occur when a lot of ions are created inside the chamber. Once the ionization is complete, the molecules are trapped within the sinusoidal orbit in the chamber due to non-oscillating and oscillating fields. The m/z of ions is gathered over a lot of time and then ejected due to RF voltage in the end electrodes. Just like Q-MS, a fixed RF voltage traps the single m/z ion where as a sweeping voltage would scan through a wider range of m/z ions. The data for both full-scan and SIM analysis can be collected and it can also be done via scanning the same analysis alternatively.

Another excellent advantage of QIT-MS is that it can trap and gather specific m/z ions. This greatly increases its sensitivity. The spectral data of full scan is then gathered at levels which were previously accomplished by SIM analysis only. It is extremely important to note this while drug testing as it will give a wider detection window, more so while analyzing low dosage yet stronger hallucinogens like LSD.

The second essential advantage of QIT-MS is that it can perform multiple stage MS or MSn. A particular ion m/z is isolated by its relevant waveform and it is then accumulated and fragmented inside the chamber. This isolates the fragments which are now known as product ions. On being isolated, gathered and fragmented, these product ions are generated till the whole sample is utilized. To lower background noise and enhance the sensitivity, it is essential that the product ions of specific ions are monitored.

The third benefit of the QIT-Ms is that it can change the ionization methods from EI to CI with simply flicking a switch. Many Q-MS methods need wide-ranging and time consuming shutdown and emission to change their ionization methods. In QIT-MS, only a reaction gas is released in the ion trap where it stabilizes and the CI method can proceed onwards. On a QIT-MS, the CI process is quicker and convenient enough t find the molecular weight of the unknown compound which shows a lot of EI fragmentation without any molecular ions.

As shown in the figure, the electrodes are basically distanced by spacer which is formed with ceramic to create a hyperbolic chamber. Electron beam is passed into the chamber from where its vapors are ionized. Automatic sensors detect the quantity of ions that are formed and stop the ionization process when maximum ions are reached. This reduces the charged space and its effects which occur when a lot of ions are created inside the chamber. Once the ionization is complete, the molecules are trapped within the sinusoidal orbit in the chamber due to non-oscillating and oscillating fields. The m/z of ions is gathered over a lot of time and then ejected due to RF voltage in the end electrodes. Just like Q-MS, a fixed RF voltage traps the single m/z ion where as a sweeping voltage would scan through a wider range of m/z ions. The data for both full-scan and SIM analysis can be collected and it can also be done via scanning the same analysis alternatively.

Another excellent advantage of QIT-MS is that it can trap and gather specific m/z ions. This greatly increases its sensitivity. The spectral data of full scan is then gathered at levels which were previously accomplished by SIM analysis only. It is extremely important to note this while drug testing as it will give a wider detection window, more so while analyzing low dosage yet stronger hallucinogens like LSD.

The second essential advantage of QIT-MS is that it can perform multiple stage MS or MSn. A particular ion m/z is isolated by its relevant waveform and it is then accumulated and fragmented inside the chamber. This isolates the fragments which are now known as product ions. On being isolated, gathered and fragmented, these product ions are generated till the whole sample is utilized. To lower background noise and enhance the sensitivity, it is essential that the product ions of specific ions are monitored.

The third benefit of the QIT-Ms is that it can change the ionization methods from EI to CI with simply flicking a switch. Many Q-MS methods need wide-ranging and time consuming shutdown and emission to change their ionization methods. In QIT-MS, only a reaction gas is released in the ion trap where it stabilizes and the CI method can proceed onwards. On a QIT-MS, the CI process is quicker and convenient enough t find the molecular weight of the unknown compound which shows a lot of EI fragmentation without any molecular ions.

As shown in the figure, the electrodes are basically distanced by spacer which is formed with ceramic to create a hyperbolic chamber. Electron beam is passed into the chamber from where its vapors are ionized. Automatic sensors detect the quantity of ions that are formed and stop the ionization process when maximum ions are reached. This reduces the charged space and its effects which occur when a lot of ions are created inside the chamber. Once the ionization is complete, the molecules are trapped within the sinusoidal orbit in the chamber due to non-oscillating and oscillating fields. The m/z of ions is gathered over a lot of time and then ejected due to RF voltage in the end electrodes. Just like Q-MS, a fixed RF voltage traps the single m/z ion where as a sweeping voltage would scan through a wider range of m/z ions. The data for both full-scan and SIM analysis can be collected and it can also be done via scanning the same analysis alternatively.

Another excellent advantage of QIT-MS is that it can trap and gather specific m/z ions. This greatly increases its sensitivity. The spectral data of full scan is then gathered at levels which were previously accomplished by SIM analysis only. It is extremely important to note this while drug testing as it will give a wider detection window, more so while analyzing low dosage yet stronger hallucinogens like LSD.

The second essential advantage of QIT-MS is that it can perform multiple stage MS or MSn. A particular ion m/z is isolated by its relevant waveform and it is then accumulated and fragmented inside the chamber. This isolates the fragments which are now known as product ions. On being isolated, gathered and fragmented, these product ions are generated till the whole sample is utilized. To lower background noise and enhance the sensitivity, it is essential that the product ions of specific ions are monitored.

The third benefit of the QIT-Ms is that it can change the ionization methods from EI to CI with simply flicking a switch. Many Q-MS methods need wide-ranging and time consuming shutdown and emission to change their ionization methods. In QIT-MS, only a reaction gas is released in the ion trap where it stabilizes and the CI method can proceed onwards. On a QIT-MS, the CI process is quicker and convenient enough t find the molecular weight of the unknown compound which shows a lot of EI fragmentation without any molecular ions.

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